The Spanish civil war of 1936 was a war of strategy where the Nationalists were able to exploit the structural weaknesses of the Republicans and the ability of the military commanders also contributed to their victory. However, some of these reasons can be attributed to uncontrollable factors such as foreign intervention.
The growing divide by the Nationalists and Republicans for many reasons after the war were eventually met with physical aggression. This was due to the unequal divide of power struggle between different social classes, such as landowners and peasants. With 50% of the population tied with agriculture, there was sometimes a shortage of jobs that expressed resentment towards landowners. There was growing desire for autonomy from a government that was divided between conservatives and liberals that prevented effective and constructive policies to be implemented. Moreover, the presence of extremist factions within the government began to emerge and exploited the weaknesses of post WWI Spain to its advantages.
During the Spanish civil war, Franco’s leadership for the Nationalists arguably was the most important factor towards its victory in the sense he greatly contributed to consolidating all of the military power, logistics, and foreign intervention methods to create a divisive strategy to defeat the opposition. Examples include the use of tactics and the assistance of the armies of Africa and junior officials and more from the Spanish army. The army’s enthusiasm in involving itself into politics advantaged Franco. This was exemplified by the fact other possible successors and opposition were assassinated or killed, likely by sympathizers and supporters of Franco’s cause.
Foreign intervention also helped the Nationalists led by Franco win the civil war. German and Italian aid contributed to the sending of troops to side with the Nationalists. These troops came from pro- nationalist forces in Africa. Other world leaders at the time also assisted the Spanish nationalists, with Hitler’s supply of transport vehicles and Italy’s deployment of 40,000 troops by Mussolini. Hitler supplied 26 transport planes for the purpose of deploying Spanish troops, 30 junkers and gave around 215 million dollar in military aid in total. Italy’s support mainly took the form of men power and war materials. Local intervention in the form of economic aid also helped prosper the Nationalists.
The use of terror, propaganda and misinformation was also another host of tactics the Nationalists employed to instigate fear into people from possibly being potential opposition members. Franco’s intentions were clearly demonstrated by a massacre at Badgoz and the destruction of Guernica.
A weakness of the Republicans that attributed to the successes of the Nationalists in part was their overall collective discontent and disunity. There was no clear policy and goal given that many of the republicans were divided on policy aims when they won the war. This was also worsened by military failures, where there was no central control in their army and was only supported by the USSR.
However, there were also other factors that were necessary to have occurred in order for the unprecedented successes of the Nationalist party to victory. This included the adoption of a non- interventionist policy by Britain and France that was attributed by the conversation of military spending due to huge deficits from post WW1. Moreover, the Spanish army favored the Nationalists instead of the republicans, which may also have had a considerable impact on their standing in the war.
Moreover, luck was with the Nationalists due to certain trade embargos that affected the Republicans more than it affected the Nationalists. A main reason was that the main weapons channel to the republicans was from the USSR, while the Nationalists have several European sponsors to aid them in their fight both militarily and financially.
Word count: Li Chun Ho (Alvin) Date: IB History HL
Essay Question: Analyze the reasons for the Nationalist victory in the Spanish civil war.
The Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War, military rebellion against the Republican administration of Spain, upheld by moderate components inside of the nation in (1936–39). At the point when an early military overthrow botched to gain control of the whole nation, a gory civil war followed, battled with awesome fierceness on both sides. The Nationalists, as the dissidents were named, gotten help from Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. The Republicans got help from the Soviet Union, and also from International Brigades, made out of volunteers from Europe and the U.S.
Course of the war
The Long-term reasons for the Spanish Civil War were because of the political flimsiness and brawl in the middle of conservatism and radicalism. This incorporates:
Vulnerability of government
- Elections were fixed or chose in confidential.
- Political power moved between the well off oligarchs and their different factions.
- 1871 onwards Spain was a legitimate realm with a parliament that held little power.
- Two major factions, Conservatives and Liberals, with extremely no contrast between them.
- Most lived in servile neediness, with a huge crevice in the middle of rich and poor.
- Spain was mostly an agrarian economy, and it was wasteful, therefore not giving adequate food and its work was regular.
- There was a requirement for modernisation and change, and was restricted by endemic need
- General Union of Labors was more obvious in arranging strikes/dissents in provincial region.
- Liberal development accomplished little in contradicting traditionalist powers, however remained a political constrain and upheld the unrest that evicted the King in 1931.
- Spanish Socialist Group had developed in rustic ranges yet had negligible effect.
The way of the Spanish Civil War
- Fatalities were high, with assailants gaining slight role.
- Misinformation was utilized to desensitize the adversary.
- For foreign forces it was constrained, for the Spanish it was entire civilian war.
- Massacre was basic.
Impacts and outcomes of the Spanish War
- Agrarian economy was wasteful and inadequate.
- High price rise.
- Madrid's correspondence systems, cable system required modifying.
- Huge obligations.
- All force unified in Madrid.
- The nation got to be 'solidified in time' as no modernization occurred for many years.
- Purpose of new administration to reinstate forces to the special class and manage the average workers.
- 1939, Decree of Political Duty made backings of Republic obligated to discipline.
- Containment and evacuation of political restriction made financial solidness.
In conclusion, the political and passionate resonations of the war far rose above those of a national clash, for some in different nations saw the Spanish Civil War as a component of a global clash between—contingent upon their perspective—oppression and democracy, or dictatorship and flexibility, or socialism and human evolution. The war was a result of a polarization of Spanish life and legislative issues that had created over decade years earlier.