APA Paper Formatting & Style Guidelines
Your teacher may want you to format your paper using APA guidelines. If you were told to create your citations in APA format, your paper should be formatted using the APA guidelines as well.
- Use white 8 ½ x 11” paper.
- Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides
- The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch.
- APA recommends using Times New Roman font, size 12.
- Double space the entire research paper
- Include a page header known as the “running head” at the top of every page. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add these components onto each page)
- To create the running head/page header, insert page numbers justified to the right-hand side of the paper (do not put p. or pg. in front of page numbers)
- Then type “TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” justified to the left using all capital letters
- If your title is long, this running head title should be a shortened version of the title of your entire paper
Sample running head/page header
APA Paper Components
Your essay should include these four major sections:
- Title Page
- Main Body
This page should contain four pieces: the title of the paper, running head, the author’s name, institutional affiliation, and an author’s note. Create the page header/running head as described above.
*Please note that only on the title page, your page header/running head should include the words “Running Head” before your title in all capitals. The rest of the pages should not include this in the page header. It should look like this on the title page:
- The title of the paper should capture the main idea of the essay but should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose
- It should be centered on the page and typed in 12-point Times New Roman font. Do not underline, bold, or italicize the title.
- Your title may take up one or two lines, but should not be more than 12 words in length.
- All text on the title page should be double-spaced in the same way as the rest of your essay
- Do not include any titles on the author’s name such as Dr. or Ms.
- The institutional affiliation is the location where the author conducted the research
Sample Title page:
On the following page, begin with the Running title.
- On the first line of the page, center the word “Abstract” (but do not include quotation marks).
- On the following line, write a summary of the key points of your research. Your abstract summary is a way to introduce readers to your research topic, the questions that will be answered, the process you took, and any findings or conclusions you drew.
- This summary should not be indented, but should be double-spaced and less than 250 words.
- If applicable, help researchers find your work in databases by listing keywords from your paper after your summary. To do this, indent and type Keywords: in italics. Then list your keywords that stand out in your research.
Sample Abstract page:
On the following page, begin with the Body of the paper.
- Start with the Running title
- On the next line write the title (do not bold, underline, or italicize the title)
- Begin with the introduction. Indent.
- The introduction presents the problem and premise upon which the research was based. It goes into more detail about this problem than the abstract.
- Begin a new section with the Method. Bold and center this subtitle The Method section shows how the study was run and conducted. Be sure to describe the methods through which data was collected.
- Begin a new section with the Results. Bold and center this subtitle. The Results section summarizes the data. Use graphs and graphs to display this data.
- Begin a new section with the Discussion. Bold and center this subtitle. This Discussion section is a chance to analyze and interpret your results.
- Draw conclusions and support how your data led to these conclusions.
- Discuss whether or not your hypothesis was confirmed or not supported by your results.
- Determine the limitations of the study and next steps to improve research for future studies.
** Throughout the body, in-text citations are used and include the author’s/authors’ name(s) and the publication year. In APA format page numbers are not used in in-text citations.
Ex: (Wilkonson, 2009).
For more information about how to cite properly please see EasyBib’s guides for APA citations based on the sources you are using.
Sample Body page:
On a new page, write your references.
- Begin with a running title
- Center and bold the title “References” (do not include quotation marks, underline, or italicize this title)
- Alphabetize and Double-space all entries
- Every article/source mentioned in the paper and used in your study should be referenced and have an entry.
Sample Reference Page:
How to Write an APA Style Paper
Three Parts:Formatting the Title Page and AbstractCreating the Main BodyApplying the Finishing TouchesCommunity Q&A
The American Psychological Association's (APA) method of citation is one of the most widely used styles for writing scientific and research papers, particularly in fields like psychology, sociology, business, economics, and medicine. This style can seem intimidating, but it’s mostly a matter of dividing your paper into the right sections and following basic formatting guidelines. Give your paper a strong intro, then follow up with the methods, results, and discussion sections. Include references, an abstract, and any relevant tables or figures, and you’re good to go!
Part 1Formatting the Title Page and Abstract
Set the basic layout parameters. An APA style paper should use a 12 point font size and be double spaced throughout. One inch margins all around are also recommended. Use this basic layout on every page of your paper.
2Dream up a title that’s fairly brief. The APA recommends that titles the short but sweet, and to the point. Ten to twelve words is a good length, and the title should give readers a sense of exactly what your paper is about.
- For instance, a title like “Age, Health, and Cities” is too short and vague.
- ”Age-Based Influences on the Perception of Access to Healthcare in Cities” is more informative.
- Center the title on the page.
3Include your name and institution below the title. Double-spacing is fine here. There’s no need to include extra spaces between the title and this information. It should look something like this:
- Age as an Influence on Perceived Access to Healthcare in Cities
- Rohanda Jenkins
- University of Toledo
4Make use of the page header. Every page of your paper, including the title page, should have a running header. This should be a brief synopsis of your paper’s title. Style it in all caps, and keep it under 50 characters.
- For example, “AGE AND PERCEIVED ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE”
Set the page number in the upper right. The page number should appear on the same line as the running header, all the way to the right. Set the page number to show up automatically on every subsequent page.
Part 2Creating the Main Body
1Introduce your paper. The first section of an APA style paper will be the introduction, but it doesn’t have to be labeled. Just write the title of your paper (in regular type) on the start of the next page, then begin writing your introduction on the line below it.
- Your introduction should summarize your topic, it’s relevance to other research, and how you arrived at your hypothesis.
- Keep things interesting. Avoid boring your readers with lists like “Schmidt concluded in 2009 that…. As Donaldson conferred in 2011…. In 2013, Pavlov then argued…”
- Instead, write in terms of ideas: “Scholars such as Schmidt and Donaldson have proven that there is widespread variability in access to healthcare. The role of age in creating this variability has not been adequately considered. Knowledge of health care options among the elderly is an important starting point that Pavlov’s research explores, but a more comprehensive study of age-based influences is needed.”
2Label the methods section. In bold print, just after your introduction, center the word “Method.” This section is a little easier. It should describe, in simple terms, the exact design of your research. Create subsections to describe the participants, materials, and procedures you used in your study. Do not use page breaks between these subsections or any other sections of your paper).
- Title each subsection (“Participants,” “Materials,” “Procedures”) in bold print, and set the subsection titles all the way to the left. Begin each paragraph on the next line.
- If it is necessary to describe the equipment you used, you can also include an “Apparatus” section instead of or in addition to the “Materials” section.
- The goal of the methods section is to show other researches how to replicate the study, if they wanted to.
3Share your results. Put the word “Results” in bold print and center it after the last of your methods subsections. Make sure to include statistics analyzing your study, if applicable.
- Refer to the APA manual or your specific field for precise information on how to format statistics.
- Make references to any supplementary materials you have in your paper (charts, images, graphs, tables, etc.). For example, you might write something like “As Figure 1 indicates…”
4Tell readers the significance of your work in the discussion section. Label this section “Discussion” in bold print, centered, just after the results section. Discuss things like whether or not your findings matched your hypothesis (and your guess as to why). Make sure to acknowledge any limits to your study. You can also mention what other scholars might do next based on your findings.
- For example, your discussion might say something “Although this study indicated that teens perceive health care as being less accessible than adults over 35, additional research is needed to explore this topic among 18-35 year olds.”
Part 3Applying the Finishing Touches
1Tack on the references section. All sources that you use in your study should be cited according to current APA style guidelines. After your discussion section, you should also include a list of full bibliographical information for these references, following the word “References” centered in bold type.
- List the references alphabetically, according to the first author’s last name.
- Don’t put an extra space between each reference. Regular double spacing is all you need.
- Use hanging indentation for the reference entries.
- Make sure to also include APA style in-text citations if you cite a reference in the body of your essay.
2Include any tables or figures you created. The formatting of tables and figures varies based on your field as well as the design of your study. Check with the most recent APA style manual or authorities in the field if you want to see recommendations. If you include multiple tables and figures, give each its own page.
- If you are a student, however, your instructor may ask you to incorporate tables or figures into the body of your paper. Always ask if you aren’t sure.
3Devote a separate page to the abstract. Write a paragraph that summarizes topic, methods, results, and discussions. Limit it to 150-250 words. Like the rest of your paper, this should be double spaced. It should be block format, however (don’t indent the first line).
- Put the word “Abstract” centered in regular type on the line above the paragraph.
- You should write the abstract after you’re finished with the paper, put position it on its own page just after the title page.
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What's the difference between APA and MLA?
There are many differences, but the biggest difference is in when each format is used. APA formatting is used for writing papers in the sciences and social sciences, while MLA formatting is intended more commonly for papers written in the humanities/liberal arts areas. As for the formatting itself, MLA formatted papers don't have a title page or abstract while APA papers do. In-text citations in MLA include author and page, while APA citations include author and date. There are differences in the titles and layouts of the reference lists for each type of paper. This is just a sampling, reviewing the style manuals for each will reveal many other differences.
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