For the 2015 Nigerian film, see A Soldier's Story (2015 film).
A Soldier's Story is a 1984 American drama film directed by Norman Jewison, adapted by Charles Fuller's from his Pulitzer Prize-winning Off Broadway production A Soldier's Play. A black officer is sent to investigate the murder of a black sergeant in Louisiana near the end of World War II. It is a story about racism in a segregated regiment of the U.S Army commanded by white officers and training in the Jim Crow South, in a time and place where a black officer is unprecedented and bitterly resented by nearly everyone.
The film was first shown at the Toronto International Film Festival. It won the New York Drama Critics Award, the Outer Critics Circle Award, the Theater Club Award, and three Village VoiceObie Awards. It won the Golden Prize at the 14th Moscow International Film Festival. It was also nominated for three Academy Awards: for Best Picture, Supporting Actor (Adolph Caesar), and Screenplay Adaptation (Fuller).
The time is 1944 during World War II. Vernon Waters (Adolph Caesar), a master sergeant in a company of black soldiers, is very drunk and staggering along a road along Fort Neal, a segregated Army base in Louisiana. Waters' last words amidst his raucous laughter were "They still hate you! They still hate you!" before he is shot to death with a .45 caliber pistol.
When Waters' body is found the next day, Captain Richard Davenport (Howard E. Rollins, Jr.), a black officer from the Judge Advocate General is sent to investigate, against the wishes of commanding officer Colonel Nivins (Trey Wilson). While the general consensus is that he was killed by local members of the Ku Klux Klan, others are doubtful, having heard that Waters' stripes and insignia were still on his uniform and aware that the Klan's typical M.O. is to remove them before lynching their victims.
From the outset, Davenport is faced with obstacles. Colonel Nivins will only give him three days to conduct his investigation. Even Captain Taylor (Dennis Lipscomb), the one white officer in favor of a full investigation, is uncooperative and patronizing, fearing that a black officer will have little success in catching those responsible. While some black soldiers are happy and proud to see one of their own race wearing captain's bars, others are distrustful and evasive.
Davenport learns that Waters' company was officially part of the 221st Chemical Smoke Generator Battalion and while eager to serve their country overseas, when not training they are assigned menial jobs in deference to their white counterparts. However, most are former baseball players from the Negro Leagues and grouped as a unit in order to play ball, with Waters assigned to manage the players. Their success as a team playing against white soldiers gives them a good deal of popularity, with talk of the team playing against the New York Yankees in an exhibition game.
James Wilkie (Art Evans), a fellow sergeant whom Waters recently demoted to private for being drunk on duty, initially portrays Waters as a strict "spit-and-polish" disciplinarian but also a just, good-natured NCO who got on well with the men, especially the jovial and well-liked C.J. Memphis (Larry Riley). But as Davenport probes deeper, he uncovers Waters' true tyrannical nature and his disgust with his fellow black soldiers, particularly those from the rural South.
An interview with Private Peterson (Denzel Washington) revealed how he stood up to Waters when he berated the men after another winning game. In retaliation, the sergeant challenged Peterson to a fight and beat him badly. Davenport then learns through interviews with other soldiers how Waters charged C.J. with the murder of a white MP, after a search conducted by Wilkie turned up a recently discharged pistol under C.J.'s bunk. Confronting him with the evidence, Waters provoked C.J. into striking him, whereupon the weapons charge was dismissed and C.J. was then charged with striking a superior officer.
When C.J.'s best friend Bernard Cobb (David Alan Grier) visits him in jail, C.J. is suffering from intense claustrophobia and tells Cobb of a visit from Sgt. Waters, who admitted freely to C.J. that it was a set-up and that Waters had done it at least five times before to others like him, saying "the Black race can't afford you no more...the day of the Geechee is gone, boy. And you're going with it." When Davenport asked Corporal Cobb what happened to C.J., he is told that the man hanged himself in his cell while awaiting trial. In protest, the platoon threw the last game of the season, while Waters was left profoundly shaken by the suicide. The team was disbanded by Taylor and the players assigned to a smoke generating company.
Davenport then finds out that two white officers coming from a military exercise, Captain Wilcox (Scott Paulin) and Lieutenant Byrd (Wings Hauser), had an altercation with the drunk sergeant a short time before his death. When questioned, both officers admit to physical assault when confronted by Waters on a drunken tirade, but deny killing him, revealing that they had not been issued .45 ammunition for the exercise as it was in short supply and it was reserved for MPs and soldiers on special duty. Though Taylor is convinced that Wilcox and Byrd are lying and is eager to arrest them, Davenport releases them.
While a search has begun for Privates Peterson and Smalls who have both gone AWOL, Davenport questions Wilkie once more, and the demoted private is forced to admit that he planted the gun under C.J.'s bunk on Waters' orders. Though he hid it from everyone, Waters divulged in private to Wilkie his intense hatred of C.J. and others like him whom Waters felt were an unwelcome weight on the Black race. Davenport then asks why Waters didn't go after Peterson since they had the fight, and Wilkie tells him that Waters liked Peterson because he fought back and was planning to promote him. Davenport has Wilkie placed under arrest just as an impromptu celebration has begun outside after learning that the platoon is to be shipped out to join the fight overseas.
Realizing that Peterson and Smalls were on guard duty the night of Waters' murder, and thus had been issued .45 ammunition for their pistols, Davenport interrogates Smalls after he has been found by the MPs and Smalls confesses that it was Peterson who killed Sergeant Waters, as revenge for C.J. When Peterson is captured and brought into the interrogation room, he confesses to the murder, saying "I didn't kill much. Some things need getting rid of."
The film ends with Taylor congratulating Davenport on getting his man and admitting that he will have to get used to Negroes being in charge. Davenport assures Taylor that he'll get used to it. "You can bet your ass on that," he adds, as the platoon marches in preparation for their deployment to the European Theater.
Jewison and many of the cast members worked for scale or less under a tight budget with Columbia Pictures. "No one really wanted to make this movie... a black story, it was based on World War II, and those themes were not popular at the box office", according to Jewison. Warner Bros. turned it down, as did Universal's president, Ned Tanen, and UA and MGM followed suit. Columbia's Frank Price read the screenplay and was deeply interested, but the studio was hesitant about its commercial value, so Jewison offered to do the film for a $5 million budget and no salary. When the Directors Guild of America insisted he must have a fee, he agreed to take the lowest possible amount. The film ended up grossing $22.1 million.
Howard E. Rollins, Jr. had just received an Oscar nomination for his role in Ragtime and was cast as the lead. Most of the cast came from Broadway careers, but only Adolph Caesar, Denzel Washington, and William Allen Young appeared in both the movie and the original off-Broadway play with the Negro Ensemble Company in the New York City version.
A Soldier's Story was shot entirely in Arkansas. The "Tynin" exterior scenes were shot in three days in Clarendon. The baseball sequence was filmed in Little Rock at the historic Lamar Porter Field.
Bill Clinton (then Governor of Arkansas) dropped by during the shooting. He became very enthused about the project and later helped by providing the Arkansas Army National Guard in full regalia for a grand scene, since Jewison could not afford to pay an army of extras. Production was completed with their help at Fort Chaffee United States Army Ready Reserve base at Fort Smith (where Elvis Presley entered the military and received his first military haircut).
Herbie Hancock delivered an interpretative impromptu score. Patti Labelle and Larry Riley, who plays guitar, wrote and performed their own songs. The blues played a large role in the film's music.
The film holds an 89% rating on Rotten Tomatoes from a sample of 18 critics.
Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (21 April 1828 – 5 March 1893) was a French critic and historian. He was the chief theoretical influence of French naturalism, a major proponent of sociological positivism and one of the first practitioners of historicist criticism. Literary historicism as a critical movement has been said to originate with him. Taine is particularly remembered for his three-pronged approach to the contextual study of a work of art, based on the aspects of what he called "race, milieu, and moment".
Taine had a profound effect on French literature; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica asserted that "the tone which pervades the works of Zola, Bourget and Maupassant can be immediately attributed to the influence we call Taine's."
The tomb of Hippolyte Taine is in Roc de Chère National Nature Reserve, in Talloires, near the Lake Annecy.
Taine was born in Vouziers, but entered a boarding school, the Institution Mathé, whose classes were conducted at the Collège Bourbon, at the age of 13 in 1841, after the death of his father. He excelled as a student, receiving a number of prizes in both scientific and humanistic subjects, and taking two Baccalauréat degrees at the École Normale before he was 20. Taine's contrarian politics led to difficulties keeping teaching posts, and his early academic career was decidedly mixed; he failed the exam for the national Concours d'Agrégation in 1851. After his dissertation on sensation was rejected, he abandoned his studies in the social sciences, feeling that literature was safer. He completed a doctorate at the Sorbonne in 1853, with considerably more success in his new field; his dissertation, Essai sur les fables de La Fontaine, won him a prize from the Académie française.
Taine was criticized, in his own time and after, by both conservatives and liberals; his politics were idiosyncratic, but had a consistent streak of skepticism toward the left; at the age of 20, he wrote that "the right of property is absolute."Peter Gay describes Taine's reaction to the Jacobins as stigmatization, drawing on The French Revolution, in which Taine argues:
Some of the workmen are shrewd Politicians whose sole object is to furnish the public with words instead of things; others, ordinary scribblers of abstractions, or even ignoramuses, and unable to distinguish words from things, imagine that they are framing laws by stringing together a lot of phrases.
This reaction led Taine to reject the French Constitution of 1793 as a Jacobin document, dishonestly presented to the French people. Taine rejected the principles of the Revolution in favor of the individualism of his concepts of regionalism and race, to the point that one writer calls him one of "the most articulate exponents of both French nationalism and conservatism."
Other writers, however, have argued that, though Taine displayed increasing conservatism throughout his career, he also formulated an alternative to rationalistliberalism that was influential for the social policies of the Third Republic. Taine's complex politics have remained hard to read; though admired by liberals like Anatole France, he has been the object of considerable disdain in the twentieth century, with a few historians working to revive his reputation.
Race, milieu and moment
Taine is best known now for his attempt at a scientific account of literature, based on the categories of race, milieu, and moment. Taine used these words in French (race, milieu et moment); the terms have become widespread in literary criticism in English, but are used in this context in senses closer to the French meanings of the words than the English meanings, which are, roughly, "nation", "environment" or "situation", and "time".
Taine argued that literature was largely the product of the author's environment, and that an analysis of that environment could yield a perfect understanding of the work of literature. In this sense he was a sociological positivist (see Auguste Comte), though with important differences. Taine did not mean race in the specific sense now common, but rather the collective cultural dispositions that govern everyone without their knowledge or consent. What differentiates individuals within this collective "race", for Taine, was milieu: the particular circumstances that distorted or developed the dispositions of a particular person. The "moment" is the accumulated experiences of that person, which Taine often expressed as momentum; to some later critics, however, Taine's conception of moment seemed to have more in common with Zeitgeist.
Though Taine coined and popularized the phrase "race, milieu, et moment," the theory itself has roots in earlier attempts to understand the aesthetic object as a social product rather than a spontaneous creation of genius. Taine seems to have drawn heavily on the philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder's ideas of volk (people) and nation in his own concept of race; the Spanish writer Emilia Pardo Bazán has suggested that a crucial predecessor to Taine's idea was the work of Germaine de Staël on the relationship between art and society.
Taine's influence on French intellectual culture and literature was enormous. He had a special relationship, in particular, with Émile Zola. As critic Philip Walker says of Zola, "In page after page, including many of his most memorable writings, we are presented with what amounts to a mimesis of the interplay between sensation and imagination which Taine studied at great length and out of which, he believed, emerges the world of the mind." Zola's reliance on Taine, however, was occasionally seen as a fault; Miguel de Unamuno, after an early fascination with both Zola and Taine, eventually concluded that Taine's influence on literature was, all in all, negative.
Taine also influenced a number of nationalist literary movements throughout the world, who used his ideas to argue that their particular countries had a distinct literature and thus a distinct place in literary history. In addition, post-modern literary critics concerned with the relationship between literature and social history (including the New Historicists) continue to cite Taine's work, and to make use of the idea of race, milieu, and moment. The critic John Chapple, for example, has used the term as an illustration of his own concept of "composite history."
Taine shared a correspondence with the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, who later referred to him in Beyond Good and Evil as "the first of living historians". He was also the subject of Stefan Zweig's doctoral thesis, "The Philosophy of Hippolyte Taine."
The chief criticism of race, milieu, and moment at the time the idea was created was that it did not sufficiently take into account the individuality of the artist, central to the creative genius of Romanticism. Even Zola, who owed so much to Taine, made this objection, arguing that an artist's temperament could lead him to make unique artistic choices distinct from the environment that shaped his general viewpoint; Zola's principal example was the painter Édouard Manet. Similarly, Gustave Lanson argued that race, milieu, and moment could not among themselves account for genius; Taine, he felt, explained mediocrity better than he explained greatness.
A distinct criticism concerns the possible sloppiness of the logic and scientific basis of the three concepts. As Leo Spitzer has written, the actual science of the idea, which is vaguely Darwinian, is rather tenuous, and shortly after Taine's work was published a number of objections were made on scientific grounds. Spitzer also points out, again citing period sources, that the relationship between the three terms themselves was never well understood, and that it is possible to argue that moment is an unnecessary addition implied by the other two.
- De Personis Platonicis (1853).
- La Fontaine et ses Fables (1853–1861, Taine's doctoral thesis).
- Voyage aux Pyrénées (1855–1860).
- Essai sur Tite-Live (1856).
- Les Philosophes Classiques du XIXe Siècle en France (1857–1868).
- Essais de Critique et d’Histoire (1858–1882).
- Vie et Opinions Politiques d'un Chat (1858).
- Histoire de la Littérature Anglaise (1864).
- Philosophie de l’Art (1865–1882).
- Nouveaux Essais de Critique et d’Histoire (1865–1901).
- Voyage en Italie (1866).
- Notes sur Paris. Vie et Opinions de M. Frédéric-Thomas Graindorge (1867).
- De l’Intelligence (1870).
- Du Suffrage Universel et de la Manière de lkoter (1872).
- Notes sur l’Angleterre (1872).
- Les Origines de la France Contemporaine:
- L’Ancien Régime (1875).
- La Révolution: I – l’Anarchie (1878).
- La Révolution: II – La Conquête Jacobine (1881).
- La Révolution: III – Le Gouvernement Révolutionnaire (1883).
- Le Régime Moderne (1890–1893).
- Derniers Essais de Critique et d’Histoire (1894).
- Carnets de Voyage: Notes sur la Province (1863–1897).
- Étienne Mayran (1910).
- H. Taine, sa Vie et sa Correspondance (1903–1907).
Works in English translation
- The Philosophy of Art (1865).
- Italy, Rome and Naples (1868).
- Art in Greece (1871).
- Art in the Netherlands (1871).
- English Positivism: A Study on John Stuart Mill (1870).
- On Intelligence (1871, translated by T.D. Haye).
- History of English Literature (1872, translated by Henry Van Laun, and revised 1906-07).
- Notes on England (1872, translated by William Fraser Rae; Edward Hyams, 1957).
- The Ideal in Art (1874, translated by John Durand).
- A Tour Through the Pyrenees (1874, translated by John Safford Fiske).
- Lectures on Art (1875).
- The Origins of Contemporary France (1876, translated by John Durand).
- Notes on Paris (1879, translated by John Austin Stevens).
- Journeys Through France (1896).
- Life and Letters of H. Taine (1902, translated by R.L. Devonshire).
- "Socialism as Government,"The Contemporary Review, Vol. XLVI, October 1884.
- "Napoleon's Views of Religion,"The North American Review, Vol. 152, No. 414, 1891.
- "On Style,"Scribner’s Magazine, Vol. 334, No. 4329, 1928.
- ^Kelly, R. Gordon (1974). "Literature and the Historian", American Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 2, 143.
- ^Baring, Maurice (1911). "Hippolyte Taine." In: Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol. 26, Eleventh Edition. Cambridge University Press, p. 363.
- ^Duclaux, Mary (1903). "The Youth of Taine,"The Living Age, Vol. 236, pp. 545–560.
- ^EB 1911, p. 360.
- ^EB 1911, p. 360.
- ^Bosky, Bernadette Lynn, "Hippolyte-Adolphe Taine", Cyclopedia of World Authors (EBSCO Literary Reference Center).
- ^Lombardo, Patrizia (1990). "Hippolyte Taine Between Art and Science", Yale French Studies, Vol. 77, p. 119.
- ^Wolfenstein, Martha (1944). "The Social Background of Taine's Philosophy of Art", Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 5, No. 3, p. 335.
- ^Wolfenstein (1944), p. 333.
- ^Aulard, F.A. (1907). Taine – Historien de la Révolution Française. Paris: Librairie Armand Colant.
- ^Cochin, Augustin (1909). La Crise de l’Histoire Révolutionnaire: Taine et Aulard. Paris: Librairie Ancienne Honoré Champion.
- ^Taine, The French Revolution, quoted in Gay, Peter (1961). "Rhetoric and Politics in the French Revolution", The American Historical Review, Vol. 66, No. 3, p. 665.
- ^Gay, 665.
- ^McElrone, Hugh P. (1887). "Taine’s Estimate of Napoleon Bonaparte,"The Catholic World, Vol. 45, pp. 384–397.
- ^Soltau, Roger Henry (1959). "Hippolyte Taine." In: French Political Thought in the 19th Century. New York: Russell & Russell, pp. 230–250.
- ^Freund, Ludwig (1921). "The New American Conservatism and European Conservatism",Ethics, Vol. 66, No. 1, p. 13.
- ^Norman, Hilda Laura (1921). “The Personality of Hippolyte Taine,”PMLA, Vol. XXXVI, No. 4, pp. 529–550.
- ^Pitt, Alan (1998). "The Irrationalist Liberalism of Hippolyte Taine", The Historical Journal, Vol. 41, No. 4, p. 1051.
- ^Pitt (1998), p. 1036.
- ^Khan, Sholom J. (1953). Science and Aesthetic Judgment: A Study in Taine's Critical Method. New York: Columbia University Press.
- ^Katscher, Leopold (1886). "Taine – A Literary Portrait,"The Nineteenth Century, Vol. XX, pp. 51–73.
- ^Terrier, Jean (2011). Visions of the Social: Society as a Political Project in France, 1750-1950. BRILL, pp. 25–26.
- ^Hauser, Arnold (2012). "Art as a Product of Society." In: The Sociology of Art. Routledge, pp. 96–97.
- ^Charlton, Donald G. (1959). Positivist Thought in France during the Second Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- ^See, for example, Mueller, John H. (1935). "Is Art the Product of its Age?", Social Forces, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 367–375. Not all critics would make the connection in these terms; Zeitgeist is a Hegelian concept which, though applied loosely in everyday speech, retains a specific meaning distinct from Taine's "moment" in a philosophical or critical context.
- ^"Taine's indebtedness to Herder has not yet fully been recognized. Every element of Taine's theory is containd in Herder's writings." – Koller, Armin H. (1912). "Johann Gottfried Herder and Hippolyte Taine: Their Theories of Milieu," PMLA, Vol. 27, p. xxxix.
- ^DuPont, Denise (2003). "Masculinity, Femininity, Solidarity: Emilia Pardo Bazan's Construction of Madame de Stael and George Sand". In: Comparative Literature Studies, Vol. 40, No. 4, 372–393.
- ^Butler, Ronnie (1974). "Zola between Taine and Sainte-Beuve, 1863–1869," The Modern Language Review, Vol. 69, No. 2, pp. 279–289.
- ^Walker, Philip (1969). "The Mirror, The Window, and The Eye in Zola's Fiction", Yale French Studies, Vol. 42, p. 60.
- ^Basdekis, Demetrios (1973). "Unamuno and Zola: Notes on the Novel", Modern Language Notes, Vol. 88, No. 2, p. 369.
- ^Jones, R.A. (1933). "Taine and the Nationalists." In: The Social and Political Ideas of Some Representative Thinkers of the Victorian Age. New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., pp. 222–249.
- ^Chapple, John (1997). Elizabeth Gaskell: The Early Years. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press.
- ^Nietzsche, Friedrich (1907). Beyond Good and Evil. New York: The Macmillan Company, p. 214.
- ^Vanwesenbeeck, Birger & Mark H. Gelber (2014). Stefan Zweig and World Literature: Twenty-First-Century Perspectives. New York: Camden House, p. 102.
- ^Wolff, Mark (2001). "Individuality and l'Esprit Français: On Gustave Lanson's Pedagogy", MLQ: Modern Language Quarterly, Vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 239–257.
- ^Spitzer, Leo (1942). "Milieu and Ambiance: An Essay in Historical Semantics," Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 169–218.
- ^Lombardo, Patrizia (1990). "Hippolyte Taine between Art and Science," Yale French Studies, No. 77, pp. 117–133.
- ^Rae, W. Fraser (1864). "Taine's History of English Literature,"The Westminster Review, Vol. 81, pp. 473–511.
- ^Mill, John Stuart (1870). "On Taine's De l'Intelligence,"The Fortnightly Review, Vol. XIV, pp. 121–124.
- ^Rae, W. Fraser (1866). "H. Taine on Art and Italy,"The Westminster Review, Vol. LXXXV, pp. 224–237.
- ^Stephen, Leslie (1873). "Taine's History of English Literature,"The Fortnightly Review, Vol. XX, pp. 693–714.
- ^Sainte-Beuve, Charles Augustin (1890). "Taine’s 'History of English Literature'." In: Essays. London: Walter Scott. Ltd., pp. 228–265.
- ^Schérer, Edmond (1891). "Taine's History of English Literature." In: Essays on English Literature. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, pp. 62–84.
- ^Morley, John (1876). "M. Taine's New Work,"The Fortnightly Review, Vol. XXV, pp. 370–384.
- ^Gasquet, J.R. (1904). "Taine’s French Revolution." In: Studies Contributed to the “Dublin Review”. Westminster: Art and Book Company, pp. 1–33.
- ^Payne, William Morton (1904). "Letters of H.H. Taine", The International Quarterly, Vol. X, pp. 196–200.
- Belloc, Hilaire (1906). “Ten Pages of Taine,”The International Quarterly, Vol. 12, pp, 255–272.
- Cobban, Alfred (1968). "Hippolyte Taine, Historian of the French Revolution," History, Vol. 53, No. 179, pp. 331–341.
- DiVanna, Isabel (2010). Writing History in the Third Republic. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. excerpt and text search
- Evans, Colin (1978). "Taine and his Fate," Nineteenth-century French Studies, Vol. 6, pp. 118–128.
- Furet, François, and Mona Ozouf, eds. (1989). A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution. Harvard University Press, pp. 1011–20.
- Guérard, Albert Léon (1913). "Critics and Historians: Sainte-Beuve, Taine." In: French Prophets of Yesterday. New York: D. Appleton and Company, pp. 201–223.
- Weinstein, Leo (1972). Hippolyte Taine. New York: Twayne Publishers.
- Wilson, H. Schütz (1894). "Carlyle and Taine on the French Revolution,"The Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. CCLXXVII, pp. 341–359.
Language and literature
- Babbitt, Irving (1912). "Taine." In: The Masters of Modern French Criticism. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, pp. 218–256.
- Eustis, Alvin A. (1951). Hippolyte Taine and the Classical Genius. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press.
- Fouillée, Alfred (1902). “The Philosophy of Taine and Renan,”The International Quarterly, Vol. 6, pp. 260–280.
- Kamuf, Peggy (1997). "The Analogy of Science: Taine." In: The Division of Literature: Or the University in Deconstruction. University of Chicago Press, pp. 85–92.
- Lemaître, Jules (1921). "Hippolyte Taine." In: Literary Impressions. London: Daniel O’Connor, pp. 219–225.
- Brown, Marshall (1997). "Why Style Matters: The Lessons of Taine's 'History of English Literature'." In: Turning Points. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 33–87.
- Gates, Lewis E. (1900). "Taine's Influence as a Critic." In: Studies and Appreciations. New York: The Macmillan Company, pp. 192–204.
- Morawski, Stefan (1963). "The Problem of Value and Criteria in Taine's Aesthetics," The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 407–421.
- Nias, Hilary (1999). The Artificial Self: The Psychology of Hippolyte Taine. Oxford: Legenda.
- Nitze, William & Dargan, E. Preston (1922). "The Philosophers: Comte, Taine, Renan." In: A History of French Literature. New York: Henry Holt & Company, pp. 645–656.
- Rae, W. Fraser (1861). "The Critical Theory and Writings of H. Taine,"The Westminster Review, Vol. 76, pp. 55–90.
- Rawlinson, G.C. (1917). "Hippolyte Taine." In: Recent French Tendencies. London: Robert Scott, pp. 19–24.
- Roe, F.C. (1949). "A Note on Taine's Conception of the English Mind." In: Studies in French Language, Literature and History. Cambridge University Press, pp. 189–192.
- Sullivan, Jeremiah J. (1973). "Henry James and Hippolyte Taine: The Historical and Scientific Method in Literature," Comparative Literature Studies, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 25–50.
- Thieme, Hugo P. (1902). "The Development of Taine Criticism since 1893,"Part II, Modern Language Notes, Vol. 17, No. 2/3, pp. 36–41, 70–77.
- Wellek, René (1959). "Hippolyte Taine's Literary Theory and Criticism," Criticism, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1–18.
- White, John S. (1943). "Taine on Race and Genius," Social Research, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 76–99.