Skip to content

Research Papers On Database Normalization Exercise

1. Jain RK. Determinants of Tumor Blood Flow: A Review. Cancer Res. 1988;48:2641–2658.[PubMed]

2. Jain RK. Normalization of Tumor Vasculature: An Emerging Concept in Antiangiogenic Therapy. Science. 2005;307:58–62.[PubMed]

3. Ma J, Waxman DJ. Combination of antiangiogenesis with chemotherapy for more effective cancer treatment. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008;7:3670–3684.[PMC free article][PubMed]

4. Batchelor TT, Gerstner ER, Emblem KE, Duda DG, Kalpathy-Cramer J, Snuderl M, Ancukiewicz M, Polaskova P, Pinho MC, Jennings D, Plotkin SR, Chi AS, Eichler AF, et al. Improved tumor oxygenation and survival in glioblastoma patients who show increased blood perfusion after cediranib and chemoradiation. PNAS. 2013;110:19059–19064.[PMC free article][PubMed]

5. Bergers G, Hanahan D. Modes of resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy. Nat Rev Cancer. 2008;8:592–603.[PMC free article][PubMed]

6. Chen HM, Tsai CM, Wu YC, Lin KC, Lin CC. Randomised controlled trial on the effectiveness of home-based walking exercise on anxiety, depression and cancer-related symptoms in patients with lung cancer. Br J Cancer. 2015;112:438–45.[PMC free article][PubMed]

7. Brown JC, Winters-Stone K, Lee A, Schmitz KH. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise. Comprehensive Physiology: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012

8. Jones LW, Viglianti BL, Tashjian JA, Kothadia SM, Keir ST, Freedland SJ, Potter MQ, Jung Moon E, Schroeder T, Herndon JE, Dewhirst MW. Effect of aerobic exercise on tumor physiology in an animal model of human breast cancer. J Appl Physiol. 2010;108:343–348.[PMC free article][PubMed]

9. McCullough DJ, Stabley JN, Siemann DW, Behnke BJ. Modulation of Blood Flow, Hypoxia, and Vascular Function in Orthotopic Prostate Tumors During Exercise. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014:106.[PMC free article][PubMed]

10. Betof AS, Lascola CD, Weitzel DH, Landon CD, Scarbrough PM, Devi GR, Palmer GM, Jones LW, Dewhirst MW. Modulation of Murine Breast Tumor Vascularity, Hypoxia, and Chemotherapeutic Response by Exercise. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015:107.[PMC free article][PubMed]

11. Urso K, Alfranca A, Martínez-Martínez S, Escolano A, Ortega I, Rodríguez A, Redondo JM. NFATc3 regulates the transcription of genes involved in T-cell activation and angiogenesis. Blood. 2011;118:795–803.[PubMed]

12. Minami T, Jiang S, Schadler K, Suehiro J-i, Osawa T, Oike Y, Miura M, Naito M, Kodama T, Ryeom S. The Calcineurin-NFAT-Angiopoietin-2 Signaling Axis in Lung Endothelium Is Critical for the Establishment of Lung Metastases. Cell Reports. 2013;4:709–723.[PMC free article][PubMed]

13. Suh GY, Les A, Tenforde A, Shadden S, Spilker R, Yeung J, Cheng C, Herfkens R, Dalman R, Taylor C. Hemodynamic Changes Quantified in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms with Increasing Exercise Intensity Using MR Exercise Imaging and Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics. Ann Biomed Eng. 2011;39:2186–2202.[PMC free article][PubMed]

14. Mille-Hamard L, Billat V, Henry E, Bonnamy B, Joly F, Benech P, Barrey E. Skeletal muscle alterations and exercise performance decrease in erythropoietin-deficient mice: a comparative study. BMC Med Genomics. 2012;5:29.[PMC free article][PubMed]

15. Sturgeon K, Schadler K, Muthukumaran G, Ding D, Bajulaiye A, Thomas NJ, Ferrari V, Ryeom S, Libonati JR. Concomitant low-dose doxorubicin treatment and exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2014;307:R685–R692.[PMC free article][PubMed]

16. Jones LW, Antonelli J, Masko EM, Broadwater G, Lascola CD, Fels D, Dewhirst MW, Dyck JRB, Nagendran J, Flores CT, Betof AS, Nelson ER, Pollak M, et al. Exercise modulation of the host-tumor interaction in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer. J Appl Physiol. 2012;113:263–272.[PMC free article][PubMed]

17. Milkiewicz M, Brown MD, Egginton S, Hudlicka O. Association between Shear Stress, Angiogenesis, and VEGF in Skeletal Muscles In Vivo. Microcirculation. 2001;8:229–241.[PubMed]

18. Benjamin LE, Golijanin D, Itin A, Pode D, Keshet E. Selective ablation of immature blood vessels in established human tumors follows vascular endothelial growth factor withdrawal. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:159–165.[PMC free article][PubMed]

19. Galie PA, Nguyen DHT, Choi CK, Cohen DM, Janmey PA, Chen CS. Fluid shear stress threshold regulates angiogenic sprouting. PNAS. 2014;111:7968–7973.[PMC free article][PubMed]

20. Tanabe N, Wheal BD, Kwon J, Chen HH, Shugg RPP, Sims SM, Goldberg HA, Dixon SJ. Osteopontin signals through calcium and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in osteoclasts: a novel RGD-dependent pathway promoting cell survival. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:39871–39881.[PMC free article][PubMed]

21. Macián F, García-Rodríguez C, Rao A. Gene expression elicited by NFAT in the presence or absence of cooperative recruitment of Fos and Jun. EMBO J. 2000;19:4783–4795.[PMC free article][PubMed]

22. Baek KH, Zaslavsky A, Lynch RC, Britt C, Okada Y, Siarey RJ, Lensch MW, Park IH, Yoon SS, Minami T, Korenberg JR, Folkman J, Daley GQ, et al. Down's syndrome suppression of tumour growth and the role of the calcineurin inhibitor DSCR1. Nature. 2009;459:1126–1130.[PMC free article][PubMed]

23. Mena MP, Papiewska-Pajak I, Przygodzka P, Kozaczuk A, Boncela J, Cierniewski CS. NFAT2 regulates COX-2 expression and modulates the integrin repertoire in endothelial cells at the crossroads of angiogenesis and inflammation. Exp Cell Res. 2014;324:124–136.[PubMed]

24. Müller MR, Rao A. NFAT, immunity and cancer: a transcription factor comes of age. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10:645–656.[PubMed]

25. Ando J, Yamamoto K. Flow detection and calcium signalling in vascular endothelial cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;99:260–268.[PubMed]

26. Russell S, Duquette M, Liu J, Drapkin R, Lawler J, Petrik J. Combined therapy with thrombospondin-1 type I repeats (3TSR) and chemotherapy induces regression and significantly improves survival in a preclinical model of advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer. FASEB J. 2015;29:576–588.[PMC free article][PubMed]

27. Schadler KL, Crosby EJ, Zhou AY, Bhang DH, Braunstein L, Baek KH, Crawford D, Crawford A, Angelosanto J, Wherry EJ, Ryeom S. Immunosurveillance by Antiangiogenesis: Tumor Growth Arrest by T Cell–Derived Thrombospondin-1. Cancer Res. 2014;74:2171–2181.[PMC free article][PubMed]

28. Lee JH, Bhang Dong H, Beede A, Huang Tian L, Stripp Barry R, Bloch Kenneth D, Wagers Amy J, Tseng Y-H, Ryeom S, Kim Carla F. Lung Stem Cell Differentiation in Mice Directed by Endothelial Cells via a BMP4-NFATc1-Thrombospondin-1 Axis. Cell. 2014;156:440–455.[PMC free article][PubMed]

29. Lawler J, Sunday M, Thibert V, Duquette M, George EL, Rayburn H, Hynes RO. Thrombospondin-1 is required for normal murine pulmonary homeostasis and its absence causes pneumonia. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:982–992.[PMC free article][PubMed]

30. Alva JA, Zovein AC, Monvoisin A, Murphy T, Salazar A, Harvey NL, Carmeliet P, Iruela-Arispe ML. VE-Cadherin-Cre-recombinase transgenic mouse: A tool for lineage analysis and gene deletion in endothelial cells. Dev Dynam. 2006;235:759–767.[PubMed]

31. Elice F, Rodeghiero F. Side effects of anti-angiogenic drugs. Thromb Res. 2012;129:S50–S53.[PubMed]

32. Pàez-Ribes M, Allen E, Hudock J, Takeda T, Okuyama H, Viñals F, Inoue M, Bergers G, Hanahan D, Casanovas O. Antiangiogenic Therapy Elicits Malignant Progression of Tumors to Increased Local Invasion and Distant Metastasis. Cancer cell. 2009;15:220–231.[PMC free article][PubMed]

33. Di Francescomarino S, Sciartilli A, Di Valerio V, Di Baldassarre A, Gallina S. The Effect of Physical Exercise on Endothelial Function. Sports Med. 2009;39:797–812.[PubMed]

34. Grivennikov SI, Greten FR, Karin M. Immunity, Inflammation, and Cancer. Cell. 2010;140:883–899.[PMC free article][PubMed]

35. Rodríguez-Manzaneque JC, Lane TF, Ortega MA, Hynes RO, Lawler J, Iruela-Arispe ML. Thrombospondin-1 suppresses spontaneous tumor growth and inhibits activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and mobilization of vascular endothelial growth factor. PNAS. 2001;98:12485–12490.[PMC free article][PubMed]

36. Schefer V, Talan MI. Oxygen consumption in adult and aged C57BL/6J mice during acute treadmill exercise of different intensity. Exp Geront. 1996;31:387–392.[PubMed]

37. dela Paz NG, Walshe TE, Leach LL, Saint-Geniez M, D'Amore PA. Role of shear-stress-induced VEGF expression in endothelial cell survival. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:831–843.[PMC free article][PubMed]

38. Laginha KM, Verwoert S, Charrois GJR, Allen TM. Determination of Doxorubicin Levels in Whole Tumor and Tumor Nuclei in Murine Breast Cancer Tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:6944–6949.[PubMed]

The answers to the first six of these exercises are on this page.

Question P.1

Using the graphical method, draw the 1NF relation given the receipt shown in [functional-basics.php#ex-form-videos this figure (Moore Videos in problem 10 in section 2.3)]. Next, draw the 3NF relations.

Question P.2

Create a set of normalized relations given the bill shown below.

Patient bill
Patient #: 12345Date: 7/20/08
Patient Name: Mary BakerDate admitted: 7/14/08
Patient Address: 300 Oak StreetDischarge date: 7/17/08
City-State-Zip: Boulder, CO 80638
Cost CenterCost NameDate ChargedItem CodeDescChargeBal Due
100Room & Board7/14/082000Semi-prv room200.00
7/14/082005Television5.00
7/15/082000Semi-prv room200.00
7/16/082000semi-prv room200.00
Subtotal605.00
110Laboratory7/14/081580Glucose25.00
7/15/081585Culture20.00
Subtotal45.00
125Radiology7/15/083010X-ray chest30.00
Subtotal30.00
Balance due680.00

Question P.3

Consider this determinancy diagram.

3NF determinancy diagrams for the form
  1. List the determinants
  2. List the candidate identifiers
  3. List three reasons why the above relation is not normalized
  4. List (or draw) the normalized relations for this diagram

Question P.4

Consider this table.

ABCDEFG
3smallblacknew4Leeinch
6smallgoldold4Leefoot
3bigblacknew4Leeinch
3bigblackold4Leeinch
6biggoldold5Leefoot

Given this data, determine which of the following statements are apparently true or false.





Question P.5

A naive database designer implemented a resume database to keep track of information about a student, including information about his or her job, classes he or she has taken, and organizations he or she has been involved with. (Oops. Ending a sentence with a proposition is something up with which I will not put.) It has the following fields.

student-id
The student's id
name
name of the student
ssn
student's social security #
work-address
street address where the student currently works
work-city
city where the student currently works
work-state
state where the student works
work-zip
<FONT SIZE="-1">zip</FONT> code where the student works
class
id of a class the student has taken
org
id of an organization in which the student is involved

The student has come to you because he has noticed that he has typed in lots of information multiple times, he also has to leave lots of fields blank, and he types multiple values into several fields. Put this database into 4NF and remove any conditional dependencies. Assume that the student can have only one job (although he or she may not work at all) but has taken many (or no) classes and could, potentially, have been in many (or no) organizations. Assume that the student works in the United States. Assume that the student could be from the United States or not.

Question P.6

Consider the form shown in this figure.

Parts
Cust ID:Form #:
Name:
Part #Desc# UsedPriceTotal
Subtotal
Labor IDDescPrice
Subtotal
Subtotal
Tax rate:
Tax:
Total:

Put this in 1NF, then 3NF, then 4NF. Then handle conditional dependencies if there are any.

Question P.7

The following are sample problems which you can use to practice your ER modeling skills. Draw the ER diagram, determine tables that are needed, determine the primary key for each table, and determine some of the attributes of each table. After doing this problem using your normalization skills, you should also attempt it by using your ER modelling skills. Then compare the answers you get from the two approaches. You might want to work on these problems individually, get together in groups to discuss them, and then come by my office en masse to discuss your problems.

Problem 1

An employment agency offers a service in which the skills of prospective applicants are matched against the skills, or combination of skills, required for available jobs. Similar types of jobs may be offered by a number of employers, and any employer may offer more than one job. Each job is given a unique job number when it is entered into the system, and, in addition to the title of the job, a range of salaries and the length of time for which the job is available are recorded. Applicants are given unique applicant numbers, and a brief job history may be recorded giving job titles, salaries and dates, in addition to name, address, and age. The information on jobs and applicants is to be recorded in a database, together with the date(s), if any, on which a particular applicant is matched to a particular job, and whether or not the match is successful (i.e., whether or not the applicant actually gets the job).

Problem 2

A company records information on its fleet of vehicles and the employees who are permitted to drive them. The database is used by three groups of people: the department managers, the finance division, and the service department.

For the department managers, each vehicle has a unique registration number and each driver a unique employee number. Drivers may be authorized to drive a number of vehicles, and any vehicle may be used by a number of drivers. Vehicles are allocated to departments within the company, although they may be used by drivers in other departments. Some classes of vehicle require specialist driver qualifications. There are occasional accidents which may lead to the vehicle being written off and/or the driver being disqualified from driving some or all classes of vehicle.

For the finance division, each vehicle, identified again by registration number, has a current and a replacement value, must be taxed on a certain date, and was bought on a certain date. For accounting purposes, the allocation of vehicles to departments is also required. Finally, details are recorded of any insurance claims associated with accidents, or repair costs if no insurance claim arose.

The service department is responsible for giving regular services to each vehicle. There are different types of service corresponding to different mileage values for each class of vehicle, with a short description documenting each type of service. Where vehicles have been involved in accidents, details of repairs effected are recorded.

Problem 3

A university research group publishes an analysis of all journal papers relating to a particular area of chemistry, namely reaction kinetics. Each paper may have one or more authors, and may discuss one or more reactions, but may appear in only one journal. Journals are identified by title, volume, and issue number. Each issue contains many papers. Each paper contains a series of references to other papers. Authors can, and usually do, contribute to a large number of papers appearing in a variety of journals.

In order to reduce the work involved in preparing their analysis, the research group wishes to store sufficient information on a computer to answer queries including the following: 1)~Which authors have written one or more papers which discuss a particular reaction? 2)~Which papers either discuss a particular reaction, or have been referred to by a paper which discusses that reaction?

exercisesnormalization