Continuity and Change Over Time Essay
are able to choose to draw their evidence from a case that they know better.
The continuity and change-over-time essay questions require students to demonstrate their mastery of this historical thinking skill. Moreover, students are expected to construct an argument that responds directly to the question; doing so should cause them to use several of the other historical thinking skills (argumentation, causation, contextualization, and
Our CCOT workshop:
In our CCOT Workshop:
Youth culture is directly connected to popular music and this interrelation is evident in the example of 'Dani California', by the Red Hot Chili Peppers, who portray the evolution of popular music from the age of Elvis to modern rock and show that though the superfluous aspects of appearance, presentation and performance change to match the conditions of the time and demands of youth; ultimately it is still music which represents the youth of society.
This is a very long thesis and it may be broken up into shorter sentences - but what is key is that it meets all of the requirements of a thesis. For those of you that are trying to figure out how to write your thesis - do not fret if it becomes two sentences as long as you are making sure that you are meeting the requirements of change, continuity, why and example.
A helpful worksheet for use when doing CCOT:
Possible Thesis for the Essay Prompt
One student wrote a Free Response outline that was very good & other than a few minor revisions this is the student's submission:
Gender Roles in India and China diminished the value of women from 8000BCE to 600CE because of advancements in technology and economy added complexity to the society which made the already patriarchal structure increasingly more confining for women and as time went on women lost more and more rights.
Topic Sentences in this outline
Male dominance was consistent throughout the period and women were expected to obey their fathers, husbands and eventually sons in both China and India
Increased trade created a class that valued poperty and did not value most women's contributions thus women's rights were limited and in India and China women were unable to inherit land or have legal standing in court
Women's roles in India were even more severe as rural communities had an expectation of 'sati' which is a practice where widows are expected to join their husband on his funeral pyre while he is cremated, this further shows the devaluing of women as they are to be discarded if there is not a male who will provide for them.
As the role of women worsened, the appeal of Buddhism grew in India and especially China since it provided a measure of freedom for some women from male domination.
Black and White - to - Color
Film style: grainy, to psychadelic, concert footage to music video style
Hairstyles, clothing, overall appearance
Change from dynamic dancing to melancholy candle-lit
Approachable to threatening (some of the punk or metal looking bands?)
Members of the band remained and played the same basic roles
Musical performance was not changed
Example provided by the College Board
The time allotted for this essay is 40 minutes, 5 minutes of which should be spent planning and/or outlining the answer.
Directions: You are to answer the following question. You should spend 5 minutes organizing or outlining your essay. Write an essay that:
• Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with appropriate historical evidence.
• Addresses all parts of the question.
• Uses world historical context to show continuities and changes over time.
• Analyzes the process of continuity and change over time.
Analyze continuities and changes in cultural beliefs and practices in ONE of the following regions from 1450 to the present.
• Sub-Saharan Africa
• Latin America/Caribbean
What should be found in a good response?
A good response analyzes continuities and changes in cultural beliefs and practices in one of the stipulated regions [Sub-Saharan Africa or Latin America/Caribbean]. “Cultural beliefs and practices” is understood very broadly in world history to include religion, philosophy, ideology, science and technology, education, the arts, literature, and architecture. Students do not have to address the entire region, but all examples they provide must fall within the stipulated region. Because the central task in this question calls for analysis of continuity and change, acceptable thesis statements need to address both, stating at least one continuity and at least one change. Acceptable thesis statements also need to be explicit, not simply restatements of the question or vague statements such as “there were more changes than continuities.” They also need to be relevant to the time period, beginning in roughly 1450 and ending sometime in the post–World
War II twentieth century.
A good response provides analysis of valid continuities and changes in cultural beliefs and practices, supported by specific pieces of evidence from within the time period, which provide supporting examples of continuity or change. For example, in terms of continuities, students could point to the continuation of the practice of indigenous religions in either area and also to the continuation of the spread of Christianity in either area or of the spread of Islam in Africa; the ways in which migrants continued their cultures in new environments; the ways in which culture was used by all types of leaders to support political systems; the ways in which language, religion, and social customs provided a sense of identification. In terms of change, for the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries, students could examine the development of syncretic forms of religion such as vodun or the cult of the saints, or the way in which the Spanish and Portuguese rulers of Latin America used art and architecture to legitimate their power. For the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, they could discuss the spread of Enlightenment thought in Latin America and the consequences of this; the impact of new racial ideologies, such as Social Darwinism, in Africa; the development of millenarian ideas such as the Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement; the spread of anti-imperial, nationalist, and communist ideology in either area. For the twentieth century, students could examine the spread of the idea of human rights; the formation of new cultural identities, such as negritude; the ways religion was applied to political issues, such as fundamentalist movements and Liberation Theology; the increasing globalization of consumer culture. Any of these examples would need to be tied into the process of change and continuity, as would any background information that students provide to set up their essays.
A good essay moves beyond a mechanistic “beginning, middle, and end” format and provides solid chronological knowledge across the entire time period. Further, students should think about including dates in their essay to demonstrate that they have the ability to describe with some precision when continuity and change happened. Solid historical analysis explains the reason for or the impact of a specific continuity or a particular change, and a good essay provides specific discussion of cause and impact. For example, the statement “Nationalism grew in Africa in the twentieth century” is a solid piece of evidence about change, but tying this to a cause or effect would generate this superior analysis: “Nationalism grew in Africa, which led to the overthrow of European empires.”
An essay that effectively addresses world historical context might describe an extra-regional connection or a global process to explain continuity or change in cultural beliefs or practices. For this essay, students would need to focus on specific global links relative to the question, instead of focusing on a similar situation somewhere else in the world. For example, saying that “China and Brazil both had Jesuit missionaries” is a comparison, not a connection. Arguing that “European Jesuit issionaries were proselytizing in South America and winning converts. This happened in China as well” does, however, draw an extra-regional connection because the term European Jesuits provides a specific reference showing how European practices affected South American beliefs.
A strong essay would demonstrate greater nuance and sophistication, including the relationship between change and continuity. It might note, for example, that a change in the early part of the long period covered in this question became a continuity for the rest of the period: The introduction of Christianity was a change in Latin America/the Caribbean, but then Christianity’s presence and expansion became a continuity. Similarly, nationalism developed as an ideology beginning in the eighteenth century, but it then became a continuity and has remained so through the present. A specific example of syncretism, such as vodun, could be introduced as a change when it first developed, but the process of the syncretism of different beliefs, ideas, or artistic forms is a continuity across the entire time period.
The best essays will be those that do all of this, engaging their own content knowledge with the specific framing of the question.
Transcript of APWH CCOT Essay
Social hierarchies-classes, ability to move up the social ladder. Gender issues-rights of women, make sure to distinguish between upper and lower classes in the society. Slavery in society. Levels of education.
CCOT: what's it stand for?
Change, as in how did things change? What was different from when it started? Why? How? What were the effects?
What stayed the same from the beginning, despite the changes that took place?
What time period did these changes take place?
What time period is mentioned in the question?
What kind of topics could it include?
How long should I take on it?
take about 5 minutes to organize your essay (no more than 10 mins)
The most helpful thing you've got
in planning the CCOT essay...
what is happening at the beginning of the time period as related to the topic(s) in the prompt?
you'll spend the rest of your time writing the essay (30 mins is suggested)
try to write quickly, using your BCC chart for reference, but don't write so messy that it's unreadable.
What should my essay include?
using your BCC chart, you should make an outline for ideas and presentation
paragraph 1: intro and thesis
paragraph 2: beginning
paragraph 3: changes
paragraph 4: continuities
paragraph 5: bring it home
the thesis is your roadmap
this is important, your thesis is what will define the rest of your paper.
how to write a nice thesis
step 1. FULLY ADDRESS THE QUESTION
step 3. address AT LEAST 2 changes and 2 continuities
provide an outline of your changes and continuities that you can expand on in your body paragraphs.
step 2. Takes a stand (categories) with regard to the question asked.
A. the key terms and parameters
B. the time period(s)
C. the region(s) to be discussed
summarize all of the info in your essay, make connections to the world, how did this affect your topic's global standpoint? how did this impact the future?
How will I be graded?
a thesis that addresses
the global issues in the question
and covers the correct time period(s)
what they want
what it's worth
address all parts of the question
(both change & continuity)
historical evidence that supports
show change over time using relevant
history, including characteristic of
the time period to explain context
analyze the process of change and continuity, and describe what changed and how it changed, including the causes & effects
a comprehensive, analytical thesis
analysis of all parts of the issue
ample historical evidence that acts as proof for your thesis
connections to ideas, events, or other issues
what they want
what it's worth
what is a good score?
a 7 is quite good, but you want to
shoot for a 9. remember, if you
don't get all of the basic core requirements, then you don't even have a chance to get the expanded core.
even if you have all of the expanded core points, but miss one of the basic core points, you're looking at a 6, which is good but not great
what if I don't know about the topic?
there is a chance that you might get a question that you don't know how to answer, but the CCOT writing prompts always give you a list of countries, time periods, or political units to choose from
if you're stumbling through your essay, just write everything you know about the topic, even if it seems small or unimportant, just make sure you don't forget about organization
Explain the changes that occurred from the beginning to the end of the period OR from the first period to the second (depending on the question). Be sure to explain (analyze) WHY these changes took place; remember that the pivot is usually the determining factor of change.
Explain what conditions, characteristics or patterns remained the same from the beginning of the period to the end and (analyze) WHY the stability remained.
Brainstorm change(s) that occurred during the time period as related to the topic(s) in the prompt.
Brainstorm things that remained consistent during the ENTIRE period as related to the topic(s) in the prompt.
Establish the MAJOR characteristics, patterns or conditions at the beginning of the time period.
List the major occurrence(s) in the prompt's timeframe that caused changes to happen, this will often become the analysis for the essay.
Analyze WHY the change(s) happened
WHY the consistency remained
Includes state systems: having to do with political organization of a government in a society. Military power & organization.
Includes trade: internal and external economic activity within a society. Agriculture: subsistence or commercial. Manufacturing. Economic systems like merchantilism, manorialism, free enterprise.
Includes intellectual development: This incorporates ideologies, belief systems, aesthetics, and education. Written language and development.
MIGRATION AND DEMOGRAPHY:
M-The movement of peoples permanantly or temporarily.
D-Anything that influences population shift positively or negatively with respect to size and density, distribution and statistics.
New tools and inventions that help advance society. Include SPECIFIC EXAMPLES!
Systems of making a living including agriculture, trade, manufacturing; groups in society that perform manual labor and undesirable work of the society like slavery, coercive labor, debt labor indentured servitude.
How societies impact and are impacted by the environment. Both positively and negatively.
Points to Consider
Focus on WHY in change and continuty paragraphs.
ABCD Method for thesis and body paragraph set up.
A-Address the prompt
B-Beginning of period
D-Did not change
Be sure to support generalizations with SPECIFIC EVIDENCE.
Provide the connections to the thesis and the analysis.
Refer to time and sequencing to show understanding of the importance of chronology in history.
Connect local developments to global themes.